Glossary


Cut work: Openings, enclosed with stitches, that have the interior fabric cut away. Cut-out areas may be embellished.

Deflected element embroidery: "A technique in which the embroidery thread forces elements of fabric out of alignment. No elements have been removed from the foundation fabric" (Coleman, Elizabeth, et. al., "Practical Definitions for Three Openwork Techniques," p. 35). Other terms used for this technique are pulled work and drawn fabric work.

Edge: Hem, fold of a tuck, or perimeter of the fabric.

Elements: Warp or weft threads of the fabric.

Face: Right side of the fabric. The face is also known as the surface.

Foundation thread: Stitches laid as a base for weaving, interlacing, whipping, or threading. Foundation threads may be the ground threads remaining after some of the warp or weft threads have been removed from the fabric.

Join: Threads that connect two edges of fabrics.

Journey: Continuous movement of the stitches in one direction.

Named stitch: Published name.

Reverse: Wrong or back side of the fabric.

Shisha: The attachment of small mirrors to the base fabric by creating a holding frame of threads then stitching around the frame. Also called mirror work, shisha appears primarily in Indian and Pakistani embroidery.

Threaded: A new working thread that goes under the stitches of a previously worked row of stitches and alternates from side to side.

Tied: Foundation threads attached to the ground with another stitch.

Whipped: A new working thread that goes under each stitch of a previously worked row of stitches and is worked from the same direction.

Withdrawn element embroidery: "A technique in which warps and/or wefts have been removed from a woven fabric, one by one, so that selected elements remain to form a support for subsequent stitches" (Coleman, Elizabeth, et. al., Practical Definitions for Three Openwork Techniques, p. 35) . Another term used for this technique is drawn thread work.

Working thread: The thread in the eye of the needle.